This year, Ms Fatou Bensouda, a trained lawyer from Gambia, opened preliminary investigations into alleged crimes in Palestine, broadened the scope of an inquiry in Ukraine, and has asked the court to open a formal investigation into the 2008 Russia-Georgia war.
Now she is joining calls for the International Criminal Court to increase its annual budget to $163 million (Sh16.6 billion) to pay for more trained investigators to delve into other pressing cases.
In an exclusive interview with AFP on the sidelines of the court’s annual assembly, Ms Bensouda answered some of the criticisms of the court and her work.
What is the biggest challenge in 2016?
“There is a lot of misunderstanding about how the court works especially in the face of the propaganda that is being made against the court. Because people are deliberately misinforming about the ICC, politicising the court and unfortunately from responsible leaders.”
Ms Bensouda would not say who was leading what she called a “direct attack on the court” but the court has been fiercely criticised by many African nations.
Why do cases take so long?
Since the court’s launch in 2002, more than 30 people have been indicted but only two have been convicted and one acquitted.
“I know that the wheels of justice grind slowly, whether at the international level, or even at the national level. It grinds slowly, but it does grind. And I believe that what is important is that eventually, justice will come to the victims.”
She insisted that as a “young institution”, the court had encountered many new issues that had slowed its initial pace.
What is your response to criticism that only Africa is in the dock?
“This criticism does not match the reality. It is a blanket criticism. Yes, it is true, I will not disagree, that all our cases that are in trial are from Africa.”
But Bensouda insisted: “All the cases that we have, except Kenya, Sudan and Libya, were at the request of African states. They asked for the International Criminal Court’s intervention.”
Should Syria’s President Bashar al-Assad be investigated for war crimes?
“We never say in our investigations that a certain individual should be investigated or not. We always go by the evidence as long as the situation is in our jurisdiction and the crime falls within our jurisdiction. When we investigate, it is the evidence that always leads us to the person who will be charged.”
“Obviously what is happening in Syria is quite serious but because we do not have territorial jurisdiction, I must say my office is not looking at it.”
Will any Islamic State members ever face the ICC?
“It’s difficult for me to say, but I would not say it’s impossible. It just depends on how much information I have on the nationals of state parties.”
Neither Iraq nor Syria are signatories to the court, so Ms Bensouda has no territorial jurisdiction over crimes committed there.